Beyond Memorial Toward a Richer Understanding of the Lord's Supper through Synthesis of Spiritual Presence, Human Participation, and Physical Media

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Charles Davidson


This article discusses the primacy of divine action in the observance of the Lord's Supper as a correction to some common misconceptions in memorial views. The author discusses the similarities and differences between Zwingli's memorial view and Calvin's spiritual presence view. This article presents a modified spiritual presence view to capture three essential elements of the Supper: the primacy of divine action, the need for human participation, and the formative importance of the physical media of the Supper.

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